Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of Teachers' Skills Competency Construct on Values Inculcation in History Teaching and Learning in The 21st Century


  • Norliza Mohamad Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Ahmad Johari Sihes Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor


Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), History, Teachers' Competency Skills, Skills, Values Inculcation


History is a subject rich in values, and putting those values into practice is a difficult task. Teachers must possess specific skills competencies to instil values in students and prepare this generation of high-value citizens to face the challenges of the twenty-first century. This quantitative study intends to develop a model for measuring the competency construct of teacher skills in values inculcation. This measurement model included seven components of the teachers' skills competency construct: values integrated skill, pedagogy skill, communication skill, creative skill, planning skill, facilitation skill, and History discipline skill. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) results from the data gathered from 446 respondents evaluated by Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) software indicated that the teachers' skills construct had a loading factor value greater than 0.60, a better fit index, and good reliability after modification. The analysis reveals that the Chisq/df/ratio is 2.584, the RMSEA is 0.060, and the TLI is 0.904. These seven components (sub-constructs) representing the skills competency construct have good validity and reliability as elements that will form the teacher competency framework in inculcating values through the teaching and learning of History.




How to Cite

Mohamad, N., & Sihes, A. J. . (2021). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of Teachers’ Skills Competency Construct on Values Inculcation in History Teaching and Learning in The 21st Century. Innovative Teaching and Learning Journal, 5(2), 72–84. Retrieved from